Begoña was born in London to Spanish parents. She trained at the Arts Educational School London and at the Royal Ballet Upper School. Upon graduation from the Royal Ballet Upper School in 1997, Begoña joined the English National Ballet (ENB) based in London. She was promoted to First Soloist of the ENB in 2008 and most recently to Principal in 2009.
With ENB, Begoña has performed many of the major female roles in the Classical repertoire. Principal roles danced include Swan Lake (Odette/Odile), The Sleeping Beauty (Aurora and Lilac Fairy), The Nutcracker (Sugar Plum Fairy), Rudolf Nureyev's production of Romeo and Juliet (Rosaline) and the title role in Giselle by Mary Skeaping. She made her debut in 2009 as Manon in Kenneth Macmillan's Manon. Zobaide in Scherezade and Prelude in Les Sylphide.
Additional career highlights including A Million Kisses to my Skin by David Dawson and created roles in Wayne Eagling's Resolution premiered in 2008 and Derek Deane's Strictly Gershwin premiered at the Royal Albert Hall in the same year.
Last year, Begoña toured with Carlos Acosta as his guest performing a number of lead female roles with Acosta including Afternoon of the Faun (Jerome Robins) and Apollo (Balanchine). In the autumn of 2009, Begoña organized and performed in her first charity gala Begoña Cao and Friends in London to raise money for charities supporting young disabled children and their parents living in the capital.
She has twice been nominated for National Dance Critics awards, most recently in 2009 for the Spotlight Award for Best Female Classical Artist.